Has this ever happened to you? You’ve been to a place countless times but you had no idea how special a place it is? There is quite a fascination to the discovery of already known places. In this case it is the Hansaviertel in Berlin, an area that I had always thought of as being situated somewhere else and that holds famous architecture of some of the most renowned architects of the Bauhaus, Neues Bauen and Modernism, such as Walter Gropius, Oscar Niemeyer, Alvar Aalto, and Max Taut.
Only last year did I begin to explore the architecture of Berlin, which is an exciting place in this regard. Berlin is not exactly a beautiful city in a conventional sense, but its history has led to the most unusual, if not unique, developments. The grandeur of the 19th and early 20th century was followed by a war that left Berlin in rubble. The Cold War that ensued and led to the separation of the town and its people by the Berlin Wall turned Berlin into a battlefield of the architecture of two opposing systems – without actually having any money for it. Reunification, the moving of the government from Bonn to Berlin and the latest boom have added to a seemingly endless frenzy of a city that never ceases to change, a city that is never finished. You leave Berlin for a week to go on a holiday and when you come back, you won’t recognise it.
The Hansaviertel in the heart of West Berlin saw its splendour of exuberant Gründerzeit style houses almost completely destroyed in 1943. Ten years later Berlin decided to build a model future city on its grounds and invited the biggest international star architects to develop a new settlement – in rivalry to the truly gigantic and monumental Stalinallee (later Karl-Marx-Allee), that was being built in East Berlin. Both East and West wanted to show to the world that it is they who provided the best living conditions to their respective citizens. While the Stalinallee provided representative flats in which you can easily get lost, the Hansaviertel was equipped with small flats in primarily functional buildings of small, medium and high-rise format, loosely scattered, each surrounded by specifically designed green space. Two Brutalist churches, an underground station, a shopping area, a cinema (now a theatre), and a library as well as some cafés and restaurants (schools were nearby) completed a mostly independent living unit.
As I leave Bellevue S-Bahn station I’m greeted by two of the five highrisers (“Punkthäuser”) from 1957, when the new settlement was presented as the site of the Interbau exhibition. Are they pretty? No. All of the houses had to be built with as little money as possible and it shows, just like their age. Right behind them is the familiar Akademie der Künste (Academy of Arts), where I saw Macbeth, Brave New World and The Grapes of Wrath in the English language as a teenager. It presents itself in a modernist individual, yet modest style with a naked Henry Moore bronze sunbathing. Smaller houses that remind me of the holiday camps of my childhood pop up here and there. They look as if living here is attractive. All the houses have their balconies directed towards the south and the green space makes the whole place look very comfortable. It’s mostly clean and graffiti is rare. Yes, I understand why the people who moved in in the 1950’s and 60’s have never moved out. Beauty in an aesthetic sense is not a criterion to apply here, but a highly individual character of each single building can’t be denied. It is this specific character that you get when every single building has a different designer.
The most famous of them all is the Oscar Niemeyer Haus, Niemeyer’s only building in all of Germany. It is a crazy one: it stands on filigree feet, which makes you wonder how they can possibly carry such a large building. The lift, that stops only at two floors, is kept in an extra tower outside the house. London residents may know the Balfron Tower (1967) that has a similar concept (but looks less pretty…).
The lofty, green Hansaviertel, that is situated right between the two city centres, feels like a world of its own. But then again every Berlin Kiez does, each an intriguing little universe in itself. I can’t wait to explore the next one.
Thanks to Ian and Jason for their support.
Punkthaus by Hans Schwippert
Akademie der Künste with Henry Moore sculpture
Punkthaus by Gustav Hassenpflug
Architect: Max Taut; background: Punkthaus by H. van den Broek and Jacob Bakema
Sculpture by Hans Uhlmann with Oscar Niemeyer Haus
Oscar Niemeyer Haus
Oscar Niemeyer Haus
Oscar Niemeyer Haus with external lift tower
Eternit-Haus by Paul G. R. Baumgarten
Schwedenhaus (Sweden House) by Fritz Jaenecke and Sten Samuelson
View through the underground station’s entrance hall to the adjacent Hansabibliothek (library), by Werner Düttmann
Memorial with the names of deported Jews inside Hansaplatz underground station
Architect: Alvar Aalto
Bungalow in Händelallee
Brutalist Kaiser-Friedrich-Gedächtniskirche (Protestant) by Ludwig Lemmer
Bell tower of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Gedächtniskirche
Architect: Pierre Vago
Architects: Walter Gropius, Wils Ebert
Giraffenhaus by Gerhard Siegmann
Surviving Gründerzeit house
Brutalist St.-Ansgar-Kirche (Catholic)
Punkthaus by Luciano Baldessari
Punkthäuser by H. van den Broek and Jacob Bakema / Hassenpflug / Raymond Lopez and Eugène Beaudouin / Schwippert
Punkthaus by Raymond Lopez and Eugène Beaudouin
Joachim Schmettau, Hand mit Uhr (Hand with Clock); background: school by Bruno Grimmek